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AP英语语言与写作怎么复习

2018-08-01 09:34:07 作者:三立徐承达  来源:三立徐承达

        AP英语语言与写作考试分为四大部分:Multiple-choice(1小时,考察在阅读散文后,对文章的理解力和分析能力,以及辨析散文中使用的不同文学修辞方式及其功能), Synthesis Essay, Analytical Essay, Persuasive Essay(后三者共2小时15分钟,分别考察信息综合能力、文本阅读分析写作能力、表达对某事物见解的能力)。

  三立徐承达的总体复习建议是把Multiple-choice和Analytical Essay合在一起复习,而把Synthesis Essay和Persuasive Essay合在一起复习。理由是Multiple-choice考察的能力其实就是Analytical Essay所要求的三大能力--阅读、分析、写作—中的前两项,而Synthesis Essay和Persuasive Essay写作需要的基础能力是一样的,即有理有据地说服读者。

  下面三立徐承达为大家列出三项具体的备考策略,主要是提醒同学们注意本项考试要求的语言基础能力和精进能力。

  AP英语语言与写作备考策略一:掌握 Basic concepts

  同学们想一下:你有了以下六个问题的答案么?

  1. What are basic elements of argument?
  2. What are the three modes of persuasion?
  3. What are the modes of paragraph composition/development?
  4. What are the most common rhetorical devices applied in AP essays?
  5. What are the most common words for tone?
  6. What are the basic elements for syntactical analysis?

  如果有了,那么你就掌握了最基本的分析文章的概念。这五个问题涉及到Multiple-choice部分最常考的问题,也是Analytical Essay中分析能力的基本要求。参考答案如下:

  1. Basic elements of argument: claim, evidence, warrant, counterclaim, counter argument.
  2. The three modes of persuasion: appeal to ethos, logos, or pathos.
  3. The modes of paragraph composition/development: description, narration, exposition, illustration, cause/effect, comparison/contrast, definition, classification, process analysis.
  4. The most common words for tone: (positive) admiring, hilarious, appreciative interested, approving…; (neutral) commanding, indirect, ambivalent, introspective, meditative…; (negative) apathetic, irreverent, indifferent, lethargic, melancholy…
  5. The basic elements for syntactical analysis: scheme, sentence length, sentence type, punctuation.

  AP英语语言与写作备考策略二:加入 Big imagination

  在写Synthesis Essay时,基础是改写和引用不同的source文章中符合自己观点的部分,但更重要的是如何用这些部分有创意而又自然地融合到essay中,使得文章具有个性化。这才是synthesis的true meaning,对么?

  例如College Board官网上的一篇8分文章(内容是电视对总统选举的影响)中,学生这样写道:While this “early promise” (Source A) of television does easily align itself with democratic ideals, another important ideal, that of people’s free choice whether or not to participate, has shown television less “promising aspect.” 这句话总体看是学生的观点,但是巧妙地镶入了从Source A来的词汇,而非只是大段、直接的引用Source A里面句子。这体现了学生结合sources在自己文章中、使sources和自己文章浑然一体的驾驭能力。

  同样,在写Analytical Essay时,基础是掌握文章分析的基本概念,例如备考策略一中提到的那些概念。但是想要精进,就得深入思考,并且加上适当的个人想象。

  例如我在AP课堂讲解2015年考题—解析Cesar Chavez为纪念Martin Luther King Jr.被刺杀10周年发表的文章时,会让同学体会文章中传递出的各种情感。例如,文中提到It (Dr. King’s life) is an example that inspired much of the philosophy and strategy of the farm workers’ movement时,我问同学们:这句话会激发读者什么情感? 同学会回答:appreciative, reverent, awe-inspiring, reminiscing…。而文中提到either the violence will be escalated and there will be more injuries and perhaps deaths on both sides, or there will be total demoralization of the workers时,我再问同学们同样的问题,他们会回答:disapproving, fearful, worrisome, …

  这些答案是不是各有不同?这就是同学们在仔细研读文章时得到的个人结论,各有各精彩,符合AP写作要求offer insightful analysis的要求。

  AP英语语言与写作备考策略三:尽量 Broaden the mind

  Persuasive essay是对社会热点争议话题发表自己的见解,从这个角度而言,类似TOEFL作文中的Task 2,但话题的深度和广度要大得多。例如2015年的题目如下:

  An anthropologist studying first-year students at a university in the United States writes that friendly phrases like “How are you?”,“Nice to meet you” and “Let’s get in touch” communicate politeness rather than literal content. What, if anything, is the value or function of such polite speech? Develop your position on the value or function of polite speech in a culture or community with which you are familiar.

  College Board官方展示的一篇获得8分的文章利用三个不同的场景--学校、正式典礼、法律体系--三个方面证明了polite speech is much more than empty words。这三个场景中,同学们一般会很熟悉第一个,而不熟悉后两个。很明显,对正式典礼、法律体系中使用的polite speech的了解和熟悉,即充足的背景知识,帮助这位学生顺利展开辩论,提供了有力的证据。
 

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