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新SAT语法平行结构典型错误分析

2018-10-12 09:24:17 作者:三立徐承达  来源:三立徐承达

                对于新SAT语法中如果遇到平行结构,同学们分析起来可能会很头疼。对SAT语法梳理,本文主要来谈谈对于平行结构,容易出错的典型,希望对您的SAT语法提分有所帮助,赶紧一起来看看吧!

  1. These audits are performed on both an ongoing basis or as part of due diligence.

  Both is appropriate (but not required) when a second choice is mentioned in addition but not when the reference is in opposition, as here: “These audits are performed on an ongoing basis or as part of due diligence.”

  2. The snakes will be safe from human interference, will have ideal places to hibernate, and plenty of mice and chipmunks to eat.

  Each of the three phrases in this sentence requires a verb at the head of the phrase: “The snakes will be safe from human interference, will have ideal places to hibernate, and will have plenty of mice and chipmunks to eat.”

  3. Other exhibits include rare movies about San Francisco, a primer on nineteenth-century architecture as well as the twentieth-century history of the city’s gay and lesbian community.

  “As well as” is not simply an equivalent substitute for and; it is appropriate only when adding a subordinate clause to a main clause. Also, because the first two items do not constitute a list, they must be connected with a conjunction rather than separated by punctuation: “Other exhibits include rare movies about San Francisco and a primer on nineteenth-century architecture, as well as the twentieth-century history of the city’s gay and lesbian community.”

  4. His latest controversial product didn’t receive as much backlash as expected, but hundreds of orders.

  The counterpoint in this sentence must, to be parallel, consist of an independent clause, complete with a subject and a verb: “His latest controversial product didn’t receive as much backlash as expected, but it did result in hundreds of orders.”

  5. They must either win Tuesday night or Saturday night to return to the finals.

  The conjunction either should follow the verb: “They must win either Tuesday night or Saturday night to return to the finals.” (An exception is if each choice in this sentence is preceded by its own verb, as in “They must either win Tuesday night or prevail Saturday night to return to the finals.”)

  在SAT语法梳理的时候,对于平行结构我们不难发现,从中不难发现,新SAT文法考试要求我们用相同的方式来处理一系列语法相似的结构。而这grammatically similar structures不仅要求语法形式一致,还要求语法功能一致。语法形式方面要求相同词形对应相同词形,短语对应短语,从句对应从句;同时,注意时态等保持一致。语法功能方面要求构成平行结构的词语,短语或从句等在句中充当相似的语法功能。因此同学们想要对SAT语法提分,这方面也是要做好工作的。

  大家可以先试做下面这个题目,再看题后的详细分析:

  例题 [可汗- Chemists for Clean Water- Q9] 9A career in water chemistry leading to exciting travel and teaching opportunities, and working to decontaminate water supplies around the world is a rewarding experience for those who undertake it.

  9. A) NO CHANGE

  B) Careers in water chemistry leading

  C) A career in water chemistry that leads

  D) A career in water chemistry can lead

  此题很多考生很容易把“leading to exciting travel and teaching opportunities”和“working to decontaminate water supplies”当成并列结构,认为在语法形式上,两个都是非谓语短语,符合语法形式一致原则。所以他们认为该句的句子主干是“A career is a rewarding experience for those who undertake it”,此题应该选A。

  但是如果真是这样就太天真呢。我们在理解平行结构的时候,不仅要注意语法形式一致,还要注意它们的语法功能是否一致。在该题中,照上述理解,大家思考一下,“leading to exciting travel and teaching opportunities”和“working to decontaminate water supplies”分别能对其前的“a career”进行修饰吗?很快就会发现“a career”可以“leading to exciting travel and teaching opportunities”,但是绝不会“working to decontaminate water supplies”,因为“working to decontaminate water supplies致力于消除水污染”的动作发出者往往是“人”,而不是“物”。因此,该题中真正对“a career”进行修饰的是“leading to exciting travel and teaching opportunities”。

  分析到这,估计有部分学生疑问“working to decontaminate water supplies”会不会和前面的“a career”并列呢?其实这个问题很简单,从语法形式就会知道,“名词”和“非谓语短语”不能构成平行结构;另外,从主谓一致也会发现,“a career and working to decontaminate water supplies”不可能用单数“is”,所以“working to decontaminate water supplies”不和“a career”并列。

  既然如此,“working to decontaminate water supplies”只会和其后的“is a rewarding experience for those who undertake it”有关,构成一个独立句子,“and”将其和前面并列构成平行结构。该题中 “a career in water chemistry leading to exciting travel and teaching opportunities”也应该是一个独立句子,所以该题最终的正确答案应该是D。

  新SAT语法平行结构典型错误分析就为您介绍到这里了,想必您看完之后对于SAT语法梳理有更多认识吧。总之,如果您还想继续了解更多SAT语法提分,欢迎继续关注天道SAT考试频道,我们将会继续分享关于SAT考试信息,感谢您的阅读!

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