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ACT写作避免中式表达理清语法结构是关键

2018-10-25 10:22:38 作者:三立徐承达  来源:三立徐承达

       英语学习过程中,经常会说到中式英语,ACT写作是分析性写作,对考生语言表达的逻辑性和精准性有一定要求,避免中式的表达方式尤其的重要,如何避免呢?首先三立先为大家带来ACT写作中常见的中式表达。
       典型例子1:强词和弱词
  对于分析性写作而言,英文呈现出一种较客观的表达,作文中“强词”相对较多,“弱词”相对较少。何为强词?就是指具有实质意义指向的词,例如book, planet, card等。弱词具有主观性,或表意范围比较模糊,例如interesting, useful, absolutely等,多为形容词或副词,因为感觉是因人而异的。当然,这两个概念不是绝对的,有的词有时是强词,有时是弱词,取决于语境。
  那么应怎样处理强词和弱词?首先,分析性写作语言表达应比较客观,既然客观,“事实”胜于“雄辩”。也就是说,强词多于弱词,在论证中尽量避免过多的主观性价值判断的表达,More details speak louder than adjectives.
  对于一个issue,我们的立场是主观的,分析性写作的目的就是从不同角度支持我们的立场,使之具有说服力。
  典型例子2:主语的选择
  表达自己的观点时,不一定要用I think,I suppose等等“我”做主语,论则过程可以选用无灵主语的情况较多,即“没有灵魂的”客观事物,但不绝对。例如官网Intelligent machine这道样题的5分和6分范文,开头陈述观点时分别是这样表达的:
Their concerns, though, are outweighed by the benefits these machines offer.(5分例文)
  Although the usage of machines increases efficiency and our standard of living, it detracts from the value of human life.(6分例文)
  为什么没有用As far as I’m concerned, Personally甚至I think等等直接告诉别人“我认为”如何如何?因为ACT写作属于persuasive essay, 你既然要persuade others,肯定你的观点,你讨论的内容具有一定范围的普适性,是客观的。因此,同学们不必在写作中处处用“我我我”,一切客观陈述,讲道理摆事实,你的作文质量会有一个质的小飞越。
  减少或者避免重视表达,很重要的一点就是要有逻辑感,对语法的结构要能够了若指掌,下面分享一些写作中语法结构的构成,希望能对大家有所帮助。
  1. 一个句子的主语和谓语动词应该能够反映句子中的最重要的意思。
例如:
  The situation that resulted in my grandfather’s not being able to study engineering was that his father needed help on the farm.
  从意思上来分析,上面这句话需要表达的重要的概念是“grandfather’s not being able to study”,而在表达这个概念时,原句用的主语是situation,谓语动词是was,不能强调需要表达的重点概念,可以改为下面这句话:
  My grandfather couldn’t study engineering because his father needed help on the farm.
  2. 避免频繁使用“there be”结构。
  例如下面的句子:
  There were 25 cows on the farm that my grandfather had to milk every day. It was hard work for my grandfather.
  可以改为:
  My grandfather worked hard. He had to milk 25 cows on the farm every day.
更简洁的句式为:
  My grandfather worked hard milking 25 cows daily.
  3. 把从句改为短语或单词。
  例如:
  Dairy cows were raised on the farm,which was located100 kilometers from the nearest university and was in an area that was remote.
  简介的表达方式为:
  The dairy farm was located in a remote area, 100 kilometers tothe nearest university.
  4. 仅在需要强调宾语而不是主语的时候,才使用被动语态。
  例如:
  In the fall, not only did the cows have to be milked, but also the hay was mowed and stacked by my grandfather’s family.
       本句不够简洁的原因是本句的重心应该是“忙碌的家庭-my grandfather’s family”,而使用了被动语态后,仿佛重心变成了cows和hay。下面的表达方式是主动语态,相对来说更简洁一些:
  In the fall, my grandfather’s family not only milked the cow but also mowed and stacked the hay.
  5. 用更为精确的一个动词来代替动词短语。
  例如下面这句话:
  My grandfather didn’t have time to stand around doing nothing with his school friends.
  Stand around doing nothing其实可以用一个动词来表达,即loiter:
  My grandfather didn’t have time to loiter with his school friends.
  6. 有时两句话的信息经过组合完全可以用一句话来简练地表达。
  例如:
  Profits from the farm were not large. Sometimes they were too small to meet the expenses of running a farm. They were not sufficient to pay for a university degree.
       两句话的信息可以合并为下面这句更为简洁的句子:
  Profits from the farm were sometimes too small to meet operational expenses, let alone pay for a university degree.
       以上就是三立为大家带来的ACT写作中常见的中式表达,希望同学们在备考过程中要重视起来,避免在考试过程中再犯这种错误。

 

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